Effects of the dietary therapeutic dose of oxytetracycline (OTC) at 80 mg/kg biomass/day for consecutive 10 days on the behaviour, feed intake, mortality, residue accumulation and depletion, antioxidant capacity and immune-related genes expression in juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated. OTC-dosing caused mortalities, reduced feed intake, and biomass reduction at 24.5–28.5 °C. OTC residues recorded on day 10 (161.40 ± 11.10 ng/g) were within the maximum residue limits of the Codex Alimentarius. The withdrawal period was 7 days as per the European Commission's regulation. Traces of residues were present even on day 42 post-OTC-dosing. Dietary OTC reduced the antioxidant capacity of the liver and muscle tissues and down-regulated the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and heat shock protein-70 genes in the liver significantly during the dosing period. The data generated on the biosafety of OTC-dosing may offer inputs for the development of management strategies in maintaining fish health and food safety.