Example：10.1021/acsami.1c06204 or Chem. Rev., 2007, 107, 2411-2502
An Interval Two-Stage Classified-Allocation Model for Regional Water Management under Nonstationary Condition Journal of the American Water Resources Association (IF3.202), Pub Date : 2021-05-27, DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12924 Shu Chen, Qingqing Li, Jijun Xu, Dong Wang, Yongqiang Wang, Zhe Yuan
Due to climate change and human activities, the assumption of the stationarity of hydrologic features will no longer hold. Moreover, uncertainties, such as the apparent randomness of hydrologic elements, and complexities, such as the existence of various water users with different characteristics, also introduce huge challenges for water managers. To address nonstationarity, uncertainty, and complexity, a new approach is proposed for the optimal allocation of regional water resources. This objective was achieved via two steps: First, the generalized additive model was chosen to analyze the nonstationary probability distribution of the hydrologic dataset; then, an interval two-stage classified-allocation model is formulated by incorporating two-stage stochastic programming, interval parameter programming and classification thought. The model can not only address uncertainties, which were expressed as interval parameters and probability distributions, but can also handle complexities by classifying the water users into agricultural and nonagricultural users. The approach was applied to the Zhanghe Irrigation District to optimize available water allocation for municipality, industry, hydropower, and agriculture in two planning years (namely 2010 and 2015). The annual inflow of the Zhanghe Reservoir is found to be nonstationary and can be well fitted by Gamma distribution with one location parameter based on a nonlinear function of time. Moreover, the difference in output between the two years with different inflow probability distributions indicates the need for nonstationary analysis. Comparison to the inexact two-stage water management model that did not consider the variation of agricultural water requirement shows the meaning of classification. From the results, municipality and industry are more competitive than agriculture and then hydropower. For agriculture, winter rape and cotton have higher priority than rice. These solutions of the optimal targets and optimal water allocation for different water users can help managers to accurately develop allocation plans under uncertain and nonstationary conditions.