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Out-of-plane trion emission in monolayer WSe 2 revealed by whispering gallery modes of dielectric microresonators
Communications Materials  (IF),  Pub Date : 2021-05-26, DOI: 10.1038/s43246-021-00157-8
Daniel Andres-Penares, Mojtaba Karimi Habil, Alejandro Molina-Sánchez, Carlos J. Zapata-Rodríguez, Juan P. Martínez-Pastor, Juan F. Sánchez-Royo

The manipulation of light emitted by two-dimensional semiconductors grounds forthcoming technologies in the field of on-chip communications. However, these technologies require from the so elusive out-of-plane photon sources to achieve an efficient coupling of radiated light into planar devices. Here we propose a versatile spectroscopic method that enables the identification of the out-of-plane component of dipoles. The method is based on the selective coupling of light emitted by in-plane and out-of-plane dipoles to the whispering gallery modes of spherical dielectric microresonators, in close contact to them. We have applied this method to demonstrate the existence of dipoles with an out-of-plane orientation in monolayer WSe2 at room temperature. Micro-photoluminescent measurements, numerical simulations based on finite element methods, and ab-initio calculations have identified trions as the source responsible for this out-of-plane emission, opening new routes for realizing on-chip integrated systems with applications in information processing and quantum communications.