Population Biology of Palm Heart (Euterpe edulis Martius–Arecaceae) in Managed Landscape Units in Southern Brazil. The use of natural areas throughout history has created landscape mosaics. The landscape units assessed in this study on Euterpe edulis populations in southern Brazil consisted of secondary forests, rural homegardens, and sites inside a protected area (PA). Our goal was to compare the level of conservation of E. edulis populations in three landscape units in order to verify the influence of management practices. Twelve homegardens, four areas in secondary forests in rural properties, and several areas in a sustainable use PA were assessed. Population structure differed among the three groups of landscape units. The population density of E. edulis was higher in smaller size classes (seedling, young I) in the PA and in larger size classes (reproductive) in homegardens, whereas both situations occurred in secondary forests. Genetic divergence varied 0.001 and 0.0023 between landscape groups. The highest variation in genetic diversity indexes was recorded in homegardens, with the presence of alleles that were not found in the protected area. Genetic diversity indexes varied less in the protected area, while the average values were higher in secondary forests. We therefore concluded that the sites assessed outside protected areas also contribute to the conservation of this palm species.