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New Modified Equations to Estimate the Percentage of Over Three Emulsifiers in Emulsifier Mixture to Form a Stable Emulsion
Journal of Surfactants and Detergents  (IF1.902),  Pub Date : 2021-05-13, DOI: 10.1002/jsde.12516
Mahmoud R. Noor El-Din, Sabti M.M. Hmeidan

This research aims to deduce new simple empirical equations for applying Griffin's method for the Hydrophilic–Lipophilic Balance (HLB) to calculate the percentages of three to five emulsifiers used as an emulsifier mixture to form a stable emulsion. To achieve this aim, various types of oils, emulsifiers, and other additives (i.e. corrosion inhibitor and biocide) were used in emulsions formation for use in various purposes such as cosmetic chemistry, metalworking fluid (MWF), and emulsion polymerization fields. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to measure the change of droplet size with time to assess the stability of emulsions. The emulsifiers were chosen based on their physical properties, chemical structure, and HLB value. The use of the deduced equations was restricted to the chemical structure and the HLB values of the emulsifiers used, the required HLB (RHLB) values of the oil and oil mixtures used, and the synergy in chemical structure between the hydrocarbon chain of oil(s) and the lipophilic moiety of the emulsifiers used. The results demonstrated that increasing the number of emulsifiers for a mixture of more than two emulsifiers increased the stability of the emulsion formed.