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Echocardiographic parameters in 50 healthy English bulldogs: preliminary reference intervals
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology  (IF1.701),  Pub Date : 2021-05-12, DOI: 10.1016/j.jvc.2021.04.010
V. Patata, T. Vezzosi, F. Marchesotti, O. Domenech


The objective of the study was to provide echocardiographic reference intervals for English bulldogs (EBs) and to assess if age, sex, body weight (BW), and heart rate have an influence on echocardiographic variables.


We prospectively enrolled client-owned EBs that were considered healthy based on unremarkable history, normal physical examination, six-lead electrocardiography, and transthoracic echocardiography.

Materials and methods

Breed-related reference intervals were provided, and associations between age, sex, BW, and heart rate and echocardiographic variables were tested using a multivariate analysis. Allometric scales were generated for echocardiographic variables showing correlation with BW. Moreover, echocardiographic variables obtained in our population of EBs and previous published reference ranges were compared.


Echocardiographic reference intervals were generated from 50 healthy adult EBs. As per the multivariate analysis, left atrial diameter (p = 0.015), left ventricular internal end diastolic diameter (p = 0.002), aortic valve annulus (p = 0.032), and pulmonary valve annulus (p = 0.017) resulted influenced by BW, and reference intervals were generated using allometric scales. Our study suggests that EBs tend to have a smaller aortic root and sphericity index than other breeds. In addition, EBs seem to have smaller indexed left ventricular volumes and higher left ventricular ejection fraction than boxers and Doberman.


Preliminary reference intervals in the EBs are reported, which might be helpful for accurate echocardiographic interpretation and screening purposes in this breed.