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"Retrieval potentiates new learning: A theoretical and meta-analytic review": Correction to Chan, Meissner, and Davis (2018).
Psychological Bulletin  (IF17.737),  Pub Date : 2020-10-08, DOI: 10.1037/bul0000312


Reports an error in "Retrieval potentiates new learning: A theoretical and meta-analytic review" by Jason C. K. Chan, Christian A. Meissner and Sara D. Davis (Psychological Bulletin, 2018[Nov], Vol 144[11], 1111-1146). In the article, the Appendix and Supplemental Materials contained errors. Specifically, some of the data were mis-sorted, so that the effect sizes for some studies were misattributed to other studies, with most of the errors occurring in the intrusion data. These errors were confined to the table presented in the article's Appendix and Supplemental Materials, and they were not present in the data file from which the authors conducted all analyses. A corrected version of the Supplemental Materials has been provided online. Corrected studies have been highlighted in this table. Further, a column with the heading "Updated" has been added. Any data that have been updated are marked with a "Y" in this column. In addition, the authors have published an updated, correct data file on the Open Science Framework with the DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/7WUFC and accessible via the URL: https://osf.io/7wufc. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2018-48082-001.) A growing body of research has shown that retrieval can enhance future learning of new materials. In the present report, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature on this finding, which we term test-potentiated new learning. Our primary objectives were to (a) produce an integrative review of the existing theoretical explanations, (b) summarize the extant empirical data with a meta-analysis, (c) evaluate the existing accounts with the meta-analytic results, and (d) highlight areas that deserve further investigations. Here, we identified four nonexclusive classes of theoretical accounts, including resource accounts, metacognitive accounts, context accounts, and integration accounts. Our quantitative review of the literature showed that testing reliably potentiates the future learning of new materials by increasing correct recall or by reducing erroneous intrusions, and several factors have a powerful impact on whether testing potentiates or impairs new learning. Results of a metaregression analysis provide considerable support for the integration account. Lastly, we discuss areas of under-investigation and possible directions for future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).