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Development of an analytical methodology based on fabric phase sorptive extraction followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to determine UV filters in environmental and recreational waters
Analytica Chimica Acta: X  (IF),  Pub Date : 2020-03-01, DOI: 10.1016/j.acax.2019.100038
Maria Celeiro, Ruben Acerbi, Abuzar Kabir, Kenneth G. Furton, Maria Llompart

A novel method based on fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been validated for the simultaneous determination of 11 UV filters (ethylhexyl salicylate, benzyl salicylate, homosalate, benzophenone-3, isoamylmethoxycinnamate, 4-methylbenzylidenecamphor, methyl anthranilate, etocrylene, 2-ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate, 2-ethylhexyl p-dimethylaminobenzoate, and octocrylene), in natural and recreational waters. Major experimental parameters affecting FPSE procedure have been optimized to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. Different types and sizes of sol-gel coated FPSE media, sample volume, extraction time, and type and volume of desorption solvent were evaluated. The optimal conditions involved the use of a (2.0 × 2.5) cm2 FPSE device with PDMS based coating for the extraction of 20 mL of water for 20 min. The quantitative desorption of the target compounds was performed with 0.5–1 mL of ethyl acetate. The method was satisfactorily validated in terms of linearity, precision, repeatability and reproducibility. Recovery studies were performed at different concentration levels in real water matrices to show its suitability, obtaining mean values about 90% and satisfactory precision. LODs were at the low ng L−1 in all cases. Finally, the validated FPSE-GC-MS/MS method was applied to different real samples, including environmental water (lake, river, seawater) and recreational water (swimming-pool), where 8 out of the 11 studied compounds were detected at concentrations between 0.12-123 μg L−1. FPSE is proposed as an efficient and simple alternative to other extraction and microextraction techniques for the analysis of UV filters in waters. Since no matrix effects were observed, quantification could be carried out by conventional calibration with standard solutions, without the need to perform the complete FPSE procedure, thus allowing a higher throughput in comparison with other microextraction techniques.