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Reassessing energy deposition for the ITER 5 MA vertical displacement event with an improved DINA model
Nuclear Materials and Energy  (IF2.32),  Pub Date : 2021-05-06, DOI: 10.1016/j.nme.2021.101016
J. Coburn, M. Lehnen, R.A. Pitts, E. Thorén, K. Ibano, L. Kos, M. Brank, G. Simic, S. Ratynskaia, R. Khayrutdinov, V. Lukash, B. Stein-Lubrano, F.J. Artola, E. Matveeva

The beryllium (Be) main chamber wall interaction during a 5 MA/1.8 T upward, unmitigated VDE scenario, first analysed in [J. Coburn et al., Phys. Scr. T171 (2020) 014076] for ITER, has been re-evaluated using the latest energy deposition analysis software. Updates to the DINA disruption model are summarized, including an improved numerical convergence for the 0D power balance, limitations on the safety factor within the plasma core, and the choice to maintain a constant plasma + halo poloidal cross-section. Such updates result in a broad halo region and higher radiated power fractions compared to previous models. The new scenario lasts for ~75 ms and deposits ~29 MJ of energy, with the radial distribution of parallel heat flux qr resembling an exponential falloff with an effective λq=75-198 mm. A maximum halo width wh of 0.52 m at the outboard midplane is observed. SMITER field line tracing and energy deposition simulations calculate a q,max of ~83 MW/m2 on the upper first wall panels (FWP). Heat transfer calculations with the MEMOS-U code show that the FWP surface temperature reaches ~1000 K, well below the Be melt threshold. Variations of this 5 MA scenario with Be impurity densities from 0 to 3∙1019 m−3 also remain below the melt threshold despite differences in energy deposition and duration. These results are in contrast to the early study which predicted melt damage to the first wall [J. Coburn et al., Phys. Scr. T171 (2020) 014076], and emphasize the importance of accurate models for the halo width wh and the heat flux distribution qr within that halo width. The 2020 halo model in DINA has been compared with halo current experiments on COMPASS, JET, and Alcator C-Mod, and the preliminary results build confidence in the broad halo width predictions. Results for the 5 MA VDE are compared with those for a 15 MA equivalent, generated using the new DINA model. At the higher current, significant melting of the upper FWP is to be expected.