In vitro recalcitrance of wheat to regeneration is the major bottleneck for its improvement through callus-based genetic transformation. Nanotechnology is one of the most dynamic areas of research, which can transform agriculture and biotechnology to ensure food security on sustainable basis. Present study was designed to investigate effects of CuSO4, AgNO3 and their nanoparticles on tissue culture responses of mature embryo culture of wheat genotypes (AS-2002 and Wafaq-2001). Initially, MS-based callus induction and regeneration medium were optimized for both genotypes using various concentrations of auxin (2,4-D, IAA) and cytokinins (BAP, kinetin). The genotypes differed for embryogenic callus induction and regeneration potential. Genotype AS-2002 yielded maximum embryogenic calli in response to 3.0 mg/l 2,4-D, whereas Wafaq-2001 offered the highest embryogenic calli against 3.5 mg/l 2,4-D supplemented in the induction medium. Genotype AS-2002 showed maximum regeneration (59.33%) in response to regeneration protocol comprising 0.5 mg/l IAA, 0.3 mg/l BAP and 1.0 mg/l Kin, while Wafaq-2001 performed best in response to 0.5 mg/l IAA, 0.3 mg/l BAP and 1.5 mg/l Kin with 55.33% regeneration efficiency. The same optimized basal induction and regeneration medium for both genotypes were further used to study effects of CuSO4, AgNO3 and their nano-particles employing independent experiments. The optimized induction medium fortified with various concentrations of CuSO4 or CuNPs confirmed significant effects on frequency of embryogenic callus. Addition of either 0.020 mg/l or 0.025 mg/l CuSO4, or 0.015 mg/l CNPs showed comparable results for embryogenic callus induction and were statistically at par with embryogenic callus induction of 74.00%, 75.67% and 76.83%, respectively. Significantly higher regeneration was achieved from MS-based regeneration medium supplemented with 0.015 mg/l or 0.020 mg/l CuNPs than standard 0.025 mg/l CuSO4. In another study, the basal induction and regeneration medium were fortified with AgNO3 or AgNPs ranging from 1 to 7 mg/l along with basal regeneration media devoid of AgNO3 or AgNPs (control). The maximum embryogenic calli were witnessed from medium fortified with 3.0 mg/l or 4.0 mg/l AgNPs compared with control and rest of the treatments. The standardized regeneration medium fortified with 5.0 mg/l AgNO3 or 3.0 mg/l AgNPs showed pronounced effect on regeneration of wheat genotypes and offered maximum regeneration compared with control. The individual and combined effect of Cu and Ag nanoparticles along with control (basal regeneration media of each genotype) was also tested. Surprisingly, co-application of metallic NPs showed a significant increase in embryogenic callus formation of genotypes. Induction medium supplemented with 0.015 mg/l CuNPs + 4.0 mg/l AgNPs or 0.020 mg/l CuNPs + 2.0 mg/l AgNPs showed splendid results compared to control and other combination of Cu and Ag nanoparticles. The maximum regeneration was achieved by co-application of 0.015 mg/l CuNP and 4.0 mg/l AgNPs with 21% increment of regeneration over control. It is revealed that CuNPs and AgNPs are potential candidate to augment somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of mature embryo explants of wheat.
Abbreviations: 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), BAP (6-benzylaminopurine), IAA (Indole-3-acetic acid), AgNPs (silver nanoparticles), CuNPs (copper nanoparticles)