The black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) is an important carnivorous freshwater-cultured species. To understand the molecular basis underlying the response of black carp to fasting, we used RNA-Seq to analyze the liver and brain transcriptome of fasting fish. Annotation to the NCBI database identified 66,609 unigenes, of which 22,841 were classified into the Gene Ontology database and 15,925 were identified in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Comparative analysis of the expression profile between fasting and normal feeding fish revealed 13,737 differentially expressed genes (P < 0.05), of which 12,480 were found in liver tissue and 1257 were found in brain tissue. The KEGG pathway analysis showed significant differences in expression of genes involved in metabolic and immune pathways, such as the insulin signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, cAMP signaling pathway, FoxO signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, endocytosis, and apoptosis. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis confirmed that expression of the genes encoding the factors involved in those pathways differed between fasting and feeding fish. These results provide valuable information about the molecular response mechanism of black carp under fasting conditions.