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A 70-Year Industrial Electronics Society Evolution Through Industrial Revolutions: The Rise and Flourishing of Information and Communication Technologies
IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine  (IF6.625),  Pub Date : 2021-01-06, DOI: 10.1109/mie.2020.3028058
Armando Walter Colombo, Stamatis Karnouskos, Xinghuo Yu, Okyay Kaynak, Ren C. Luo, Yang Shi, Paulo Leitao, Luis Ribeiro, Jan Haase

The Industrial Revolution, which originally involved the change from an agrarian and handicraft economy to a market dominated by factory mechanization during the early 18th century, has profoundly shaped the world. It has progressed through four disruptive phases: Industry 1.0 through Industry 4.0. Industry 1.0 encompassed early automation, while Industry 2.0 began at the end of the 19th century, when enormous technological advances were made, such as mass production, electrification, and new modes of transportation. Industry 3.0 began during the 1970s, a decade that gave rise to the electronics, telecommunications, and computing that enable full automation and robotics. Industry 4.0 kicked off at the dawn of the third millennium, marked by the ubiquitous use of Internet technologies, which have radically transformed how people, society, and industry interact.