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Sinus Node Dysfunction due to Occlusion of the Sinus Node Artery during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Journal of Interventional Cardiology  (IF2.279),  Pub Date : 2021-03-30, DOI: 10.1155/2021/8810484
Ofir Koren, Dante Antonelli, Ranya Khamaise, Scot Ehrenberg, Ehud Rozner, Yoav Turgeman

Background. Sinus node artery occlusion (SNO) is a rare complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We analyze both the short- and long-term consequences of SNO. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 1379 consecutive PCI’s involving RCA and Cx arteries performed in our heart institute from 2016 to 2019. Median follow-up was 44 ± 5 months. Results. Among the 4844 PCIs performed during the study period, 284 involved the RCA and the circumflex’s proximal segment. Periprocedural SNO was estimated by angiography observed in 15 patients (5.3%), all originated from RCA. The majority of SNO occurred during urgent and primary PCIs following acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Sinus node dysfunction (SND) appeared in 12 (80%) of patients. Four (26.6%) patients had sinus bradycardia, which resolved spontaneously, and 8 (53.3%) patients had sinus arrest with an escaped nodal rhythm, which mostly responded to medical treatment during the first 24 hours. There was no association between PCI technique and outcome. Three patients (20%) required urgent temporary ventricular pacing. One patient had permanent pacemaker implantation. Pacemaker interrogation during follow-up revealed a recovery of the sinus node function after one month. Conclusion. SNO is rare and seen mostly during angioplasty to the proximal segment of the RCA during ACS. The risk of developing sinus node dysfunction following SNO is high. SND usually appears during the first 24 h of PCI. The majority of SND patients responded to medical treatment, and only in rare cases were permanent pacemakers required.