Find Paper, Faster
Example:10.1021/acsami.1c06204 or Chem. Rev., 2007, 107, 2411-2502
Subchondral bone microenvironment in osteoarthritis and pain
Bone Research  (IF13.567),  Pub Date : 2021-03-17, DOI: 10.1038/s41413-021-00147-z
Yan Hu, Xiao Chen, Sicheng Wang, Yingying Jing, Jiacan Su

Osteoarthritis comprises several joint disorders characterized by articular cartilage degeneration and persistent pain, causing disability and economic burden. The incidence of osteoarthritis is rapidly increasing worldwide due to aging and obesity trends. Basic and clinical research on osteoarthritis has been carried out for decades, but many questions remain unanswered. The exact role of subchondral bone during the initiation and progression osteoarthritis remains unclear. Accumulating evidence shows that subchondral bone lesions, including bone marrow edema and angiogenesis, develop earlier than cartilage degeneration. Clinical interventions targeting subchondral bone have shown therapeutic potential, while others targeting cartilage have yielded disappointing results. Abnormal subchondral bone remodeling, angiogenesis and sensory nerve innervation contribute directly or indirectly to cartilage destruction and pain. This review is about bone-cartilage crosstalk, the subchondral microenvironment and the critical role of both in osteoarthritis progression. It also provides an update on the pathogenesis of and interventions for osteoarthritis and future research targeting subchondral bone.