The natural pigment fucoxanthin has attracted global attention because of its superior antioxidant properties. The haptophyte marine microalgae Pavlova spp. are assumed to be promising industrial fucoxanthin producers as their lack of a cell wall could facilitate the commercialization of cultured cells as a whole food. This study screened promising Pavlova strains with high fucoxanthin content to develop an outdoor cultivation method for fucoxanthin production. Initial laboratory investigations of P. pinguis NBRC 102807, P. lutheri NBRC 102808, and Pavlova sp. OPMS 30543 identified OPMS 30543 as having the highest fucoxanthin content. The culture conditions were optimized for OPMS 30543. Compared with f/2 and Walne’s media, the use of Daigo’s IMK medium led to the highest biomass production and highest fucoxanthin accumulation. The presence of seawater elements in Daigo’s IMK medium was necessary for the growth of OPMS 30543. OPMS 30543 was then cultured outdoors using acrylic pipe photobioreactors, a plastic bag, an open tank, and a raceway pond. Acrylic pipe photobioreactors with small diameters enabled the highest biomass production. Using an acrylic pipe photobioreactor with 60-mm diameter, a fucoxanthin productivity of 4.88 mg/L/day was achieved in outdoor cultivation. Thus, this study demonstrated the usefulness of Pavlova sp. OPMS 30543 for fucoxanthin production in outdoor cultivation.