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Ninth grade office discipline referrals: the critical role of teachers in addressing students’ social, emotional, and behavioural needs
Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties  (IF),  Pub Date : 2021-02-26, DOI: 10.1080/13632752.2021.1880731
Kevin Tan, Caitlin Yore, Michaela Hillen


Office disciplinary referrals (ODRs) during students’ first year of high school have been understudied despite research indicating they undermine graduation rates. Based on two cohorts of 9th grade students from one high school in one American Midwestern state, trends in ODRs were analysed in relation to students’ and teachers’ ratings of students’ social, emotional, and behavioural needs. During a typical school day, ODRs steadily increased in the first two hours of the day, then stabilised between 10am and 2pm. ODRs also peaked on Wednesdays and in November, February, and April. Analyses comparing students without any ODRs to those referred once and two times or more showed that students’ self-rating of their positive social skills and teacher rating of problem behaviours were associated with lower likelihood of having an ODR. Implications for school supports to improve student experience during the first year of high school are discussed.