The nonwoven fibrous matrices based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and carbon nanotubes have been investigated for the purposes of cultivation of living cells. The nonwoven fibrous materials are obtained by an electrospinning technique. The concentration of the carbon nanotubes is varied from 0.01 to 0.1%. It is shown that the introduction of the carbon nanotubes is resulted in orientation of the polymer macrochains in the amorphous phase. As a result, mechanical and sorption properties, as well as resistance to photooxidative, thermooxidative and hydrolytic degradations, increase. The nonwoven fibrous material with 0.1% of carbon nanotubes exhibits the highest biocompatibility.