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The Changing Face of the Family Enterobacteriaceae (Order: "Enterobacterales"): New Members, Taxonomic Issues, Geographic Expansion, and New Diseases and Disease Syndromes
Clinical Microbiology Reviews  (IF26.132),  Pub Date : 2021-02-24, DOI: 10.1128/cmr.00174-20
J. Michael Janda, Sharon L. Abbott

The family Enterobacteriaceae has undergone significant morphogenetic changes in its more than 85-year history, particularly during the past 2 decades (2000 to 2020). The development and introduction of new and novel molecular methods coupled with innovative laboratory techniques have led to many advances. We now know that the global range of enterobacteria is much more expansive than previously recognized, as they play important roles in the environment in vegetative processes and through widespread environmental distribution through insect vectors. In humans, many new species have been described, some associated with specific disease processes. Some established species are now observed in new infectious disease settings and syndromes. The results of molecular taxonomic and phylogenetics studies suggest that the current family Enterobacteriaceae should possibly be divided into seven or more separate families. The logarithmic explosion in the number of enterobacterial species described brings into question the relevancy, need, and mechanisms to potentially identify these taxa. This review covers the progression, transformation, and morphogenesis of the family from the seminal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publication (J. J. Farmer III, B. R. Davis, F. W. Hickman-Brenner, A. McWhorter, et al., J Clin Microbiol 21:46–76, 1985, to the present.