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Molecular Epidemiology of Human Cryptosporidiosis in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Clinical Microbiology Reviews  (IF26.132),  Pub Date : 2021-02-24, DOI: 10.1128/cmr.00087-19
Xin Yang, Yaqiong Guo, Lihua Xiao, Yaoyu Feng

Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most important causes of moderate to severe diarrhea and diarrhea-related mortality in children under 2 years of age in low- and middle-income countries. In recent decades, genotyping and subtyping tools have been used in epidemiological studies of human cryptosporidiosis. Results of these studies suggest that higher genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. is present in humans in these countries at both species and subtype levels and that anthroponotic transmission plays a major role in human cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidium hominis is the most common Cryptosporidium species in humans in almost all the low- and middle-income countries examined, with five subtype families (namely, Ia, Ib, Id, Ie, and If) being commonly found in most regions. In addition, most Cryptosporidium parvum infections in these areas are caused by the anthroponotic IIc subtype family rather than the zoonotic IIa subtype family. There is geographic segregation in Cryptosporidium hominis subtypes, as revealed by multilocus subtyping. Concurrent and sequential infections with different Cryptosporidium species and subtypes are common, as immunity against reinfection and cross protection against different Cryptosporidium species are partial. Differences in clinical presentations have been observed among Cryptosporidium species and C. hominis subtypes. These observations suggest that WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene)-based interventions should be implemented to prevent and control human cryptosporidiosis in low- and middle-income countries.