The novel non-targeted PCR-based genotyping system, namely Genotyping by Random Amplicon Sequencing, Direct (GRAS-Di), is characterized by the simplicity in library construction and robustness against DNA degradation and is expected to facilitate advancements in genetics, in both basic and applied sciences. In this study, we tested the utility of GRAS-Di for genetic analysis in a cultured population of the tiger pufferfish Takifugu rubripes. The genetic analyses included family structure analysis, genetic map construction, and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for the male precocious phenotype using a population consisting of four full-sib families derived from a genetically precocious line. An average of 4.7 million raw reads were obtained from 198 fish. Trimmed reads were mapped onto a Fugu reference genome for genotyping, and 21,938 putative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained. These 22 K SNPs accurately resolved the sibship and parent–offspring pairs. A fine-scale linkage map (total size: 1,949 cM; average interval: 1.75 cM) was constructed from 1,423 effective SNPs, for which the allele inheritance patterns were known. QTL analysis detected a significant locus for testes weight on Chr_14 and three suggestive loci on Chr_1, Chr_8, and Chr_19. The significant QTL was shared by body length and body weight. The effect of each QTL was small (phenotypic variation explained, PVE: 3.1–5.9%), suggesting that the precociousness seen in the cultured pufferfish is polygenic. Taken together, these results indicate that GRAS-Di is a practical genotyping tool for aquaculture species and applicable for molecular breeding programs, such as marker-assisted selection and genomic selection.