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Synthesis and characterization of a chalcone-derived epoxy containing pyrazoline ring with excellent flame resistance
High Performance Polymers  (IF2.161),  Pub Date : 2021-02-16, DOI: 10.1177/0954008321993523
Yan-min-zi Zhang, Meng-yao Huang, Jun Zhou, Da-zhe Li, Yi Lei

Traditional epoxy resins are made by the reaction of petroleum-based bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin. The disadvantages of these petroleum-based epoxy including certain biological toxicity and flammability. To solve these problems, we first synthesized a diphenol compound 3,5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-pyrazoline (TPP), which was prepared by condensation reaction of bio-based chalcone with hydrazine hydrate to replace standard petroleum-based bisphenol A. Then it was condensed with epichlorohydrin under alkaline condition to form a fully aromatic pyrazoline ring epoxy (TPP-EP). For further research, we use 4,4′-diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM) as the curing agent. When compared with bisphenol A epoxy resin (DGEBA/DDM), TPP-EP/DDM possessed a higher glass transition temperature (233°C vs. 176°C), and even showed that the residual carbon (in N2) and the storage modulus (at 30°C) increased by 201% and 74%, respectively. What’s more, TPP-EP/DDM system also had good inherent flame retardancy. The limiting oxygen index of TPP-EP/DDM was 33.1, reaching the V-0 level tested by UL-94. From the cone test, the THR, p-HRR, p-SPR and TSP values of TPP-EP/DDM systems also showed different degrees of reduction. Since TPP-EP contained tertiary amine active groups that could be used as a kind of catalytic curing agents for epoxy resins, thus the compound had certain self-curing properties. This work was of great significance for the synthesis of pyrazoline bio-based environmentally friendly flame-retardant epoxy resin.