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The development and validation of a teacher-reported low-level classroom disruption scale (LLCD-S)
Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties  (IF),  Pub Date : 2020-09-12, DOI: 10.1080/13632752.2020.1816651
Suzanne Cogswell, Amanda Carr, Nicola Abbott, Claire P. Monks

Low-level classroom disruption (LLCD) is characterised by pupils swinging on chairs, whispering or fidgeting in class. This paper provides initial data on the development and validation of the teacher-rated Low-Level Classroom Disruption Scale (LLCD-S), with two samples of primary school pupils. Exploratory factor analysis in Study 1 (N= 120) revealed one factor accounting for 61% of the variance; supported by confirmatory factor analysis in Study 2 (N= 274), with one factor accounting for 63% of the variance. Both studies reported high Cronbach’s alpha values of.82 and.93 respectively. The evidence supports LLCD being a unidimensional construct, measured by the eight item LLCD-S. Weak convergence validity was found between the LLCD-S and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire’s (SDQ) externalising behaviours: conduct problems and hyperactivity. This preliminary evidence indicates that LLCD-S is a valid and reliable measure of low-level classroom disruption. Further research is needed to test the utility of the LLCD-S across different levels of education, cultures and as a pupil-reported measure.