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Nodal intersections and geometric control
Journal of Differential Geometry  (IF2.688),  Pub Date : 2021-02-10, DOI: 10.4310/jdg/1612975018
John A. Toth, Steve Zelditch

We prove that the number of nodal points on an $\mathcal{S}$-good real analytic curve $\mathcal{C}$ of a sequence $\mathcal{S}$ of Laplace eigenfunctions $\varphi_j$ of eigenvalue $-\lambda^2_j$ of a real analytic Riemannian manifold $(M, g)$ is bounded above by $A_{g , \mathcal{C}} \lambda_j$. Moreover, we prove that the codimension-two Hausdorff measure $\mathcal{H}^{m-2} (\mathcal{N}_{\varphi \lambda} \cap H)$ of nodal intersections with a connected, irreducible real analytic hypersurface $H \subset M$ is $\leq A_{g, H} \lambda_j$. The $\mathcal{S}$-goodness condition is that the sequence of normalized logarithms $\frac{1}{\lambda_j} \operatorname{log} {\lvert \varphi_j \rvert}^2$ does not tend to $-\infty$ uniformly on $\mathcal{C}$, resp. $H$. We further show that a hypersurface satisfying a geometric control condition is $\mathcal{S}$-good for a density one subsequence of eigenfunctions. This gives a partial answer to a question of Bourgain–Rudnick about hypersurfaces on which a sequence of eigenfunctions can vanish. The partial answer characterizes hypersurfaces on which a positive density sequence can vanish or just have $L^2$ norms tending to zero.