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Isolation and Characterization of Fish-Gut Bacillus spp. as Source of Natural Antimicrobial Compounds to Fight Aquaculture Bacterial Diseases
Marine Biotechnology  (IF3.619),  Pub Date : 2021-02-05, DOI: 10.1007/s10126-021-10022-x
Rafaela A. Santos, Aires Oliva-Teles, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, Russell Jerusik, Maria J. Saavedra, Paula Enes, Cláudia R. Serra

Aquaculture is responsible for more than 50% of global seafood consumption. Bacterial diseases are a major constraint to this sector and associated with misuse of antibiotics, pose serious threats to public health. Fish-symbionts, co-inhabitants of fish pathogens, might be a promising source of natural antimicrobial compounds (NACs) alternative to antibiotics, limiting bacterial diseases occurrence in aquafarms. In particular, sporeforming Bacillus spp. are known for their probiotic potential and production of NACs antagonistic of bacterial pathogens and are abundant in aquaculture fish guts. Harnessing the fish-gut microbial community potential, 172 sporeforming strains producing NACs were isolated from economically important aquaculture fish species, namely European seabass, gilthead seabream, and white seabream. We demonstrated that they possess anti-growth, anti-biofilm, or anti-quorum-sensing activities, to control bacterial infections and 52% of these isolates effectively antagonized important fish pathogens, including Aeromonas hydrophila, A. salmonicida, A. bivalvium, A. veronii, Vibrio anguillarum, V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, Photobacterium damselae, Tenacibaculum maritimum, Edwardsiela tarda, and Shigella sonnei. By in vitro quantification of sporeformers’ capacity to suppress growth and biofilm formation of fish pathogens, and by assessing their potential to interfere with pathogens communication, we identified three promising candidates to become probiotics or source of bioactive molecules to be used in aquaculture against bacterial aquaculture diseases.