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New insights of nanomaterials usage toward superhydrophobic membranes for water desalination via membrane distillation: A review
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology  (IF12.561),  Pub Date : 2021-02-04, DOI:
Emilia Gontarek-Castro, Roberto Castro-Muñoz, Marek Lieder


Membrane distillation (MD) is a promising technology for seawater desalination due to the ability to process high-salinity waters and the ability to be driven by low-grade or waste heat. However, practical applications of MD membranes are limited by the low vapor flux and fouling problem. Recently, there is a growing interest in developing novel MD membrane materials with enhanced hydrophobicity to improve the efficiency of desalination performance. Interestingly, the incorporation of nanomaterials for tailoring superhydrophobic properties of MD membranes has attracted enormous attention in MD. Herein, according to the new insights of the available literature data, the current trend for achieving superhydrophobic MD membranes by embedding inorganic nanomaterials is provided. The influence of the inorganic additives on membrane fouling, stability, separation performance, is also discussed. Finally, theoretical principles of MD, the milestones of the evolution of developing superhydrophobic membrane surfaces, and future trends are also given for the new readers in the field.