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Tissue-Specific Effects of Leptin on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism
Endocrine Reviews  (IF19.871),  Pub Date : 2020-11-05, DOI: 10.1210/endrev/bnaa027
Pereira S, Cline D, Glavas M, et al.

The discovery of leptin was intrinsically associated with its ability to regulate body weight. However, the effects of leptin are more far-reaching and include profound glucose-lowering and anti-lipogenic effects, independent of leptin’s regulation of body weight. Regulation of glucose metabolism by leptin is mediated both centrally and via peripheral tissues and is influenced by the activation status of insulin signaling pathways. Ectopic fat accumulation is diminished by both central and peripheral leptin, an effect that is beneficial in obesity-associated disorders. The magnitude of leptin action depends upon the tissue, sex, and context being examined. Peripheral tissues that are of particular relevance include the endocrine pancreas, liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissues, immune cells, and the cardiovascular system. As a result of its potent metabolic activity, leptin is used to control hyperglycemia in patients with lipodystrophy and is being explored as an adjunct to insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes. To fully understand the role of leptin in physiology and to maximize its therapeutic potential, the mechanisms of leptin action in these tissues needs to be further explored.