The dielectric properties and electromagnetic wave absorbing performance of granular polysilicon have important influences on microwave smelting efficiency. In this study, the dielectric parameters (dielectric constant, dielectric loss factor and loss tangent) of granular polysilicon were measured from room temperature (25 °C) to 800 °C at 2450 MHz by using the cylindrical cavity perturbation method, and the reflection loss of granular polysilicon was calculated according to the theory of electromagnetic wave transmission line, and then the effects of temperature on microwave absorbing performance was analyzed. The results indicated that the dielectric constant and dielectric factor loss of granular polysilicon change little before 300 °C, but when the temperature is higher than 300 °C, the dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor increase gradually. The microwave absorbing performance of granular polysilicon fluctuates with the increase of granules thickness, there are multiple absorption peaks, and the position and intensity of absorption peaks change with the increasing temperature. This study provides theoretical guidance for the optimization of smelting process parameters of granular polysilicon and the design of microwave smelting equipment.