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Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Borreliosis
Clinical Microbiology Reviews  (IF26.132),  Pub Date : 2021-01-27, DOI: 10.1128/cmr.00018-19
John A. Branda, Allen C. Steere

Lyme borreliosis is caused by a growing list of related, yet distinct, spirochetes with complex biology and sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms. It may result in a range of clinical manifestations involving different organ systems, and can lead to persistent sequelae in a subset of cases. The pathogenesis of Lyme borreliosis is incompletely understood, and laboratory diagnosis, the focus of this review, requires considerable understanding to interpret the results correctly. Direct detection of the infectious agent is usually not possible or practical, necessitating a continued reliance on serologic testing. Still, some important advances have been made in the area of diagnostics, and there are many promising ideas for future assay development. This review summarizes the state of the art in laboratory diagnostics for Lyme borreliosis, provides guidance in test selection and interpretation, and highlights future directions.