Ciboria shiraiana causes hypertrophy sorosis scleroteniosis in mulberry trees, resulting in huge economic losses, and exploring its pathogenic mechanism at a genomic level is important for developing new control methods. Here, genome sequencing of C. shiraiana based on PacBio RSII and Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform as well as manual gap filling was performed. Synteny analysis with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum revealed 16 putative chromosomes corresponding to 16 chromosomes of C. shiraiana. Screening of rapid-evolution genes revealed that 97 and 2.4% of genes had undergone purifying selection and positive selection, respectively. When compared with S. sclerotiorum, fewer secreted effector proteins were found in C. shiraiana. The number of genes involved in pathogenicity, including secondary metabolites, carbohydrate active enzymes, and P450s, in the C. shiraiana genome was comparable with that of other necrotrophs but higher than that of biotrophs and saprotrophs. The growth-related genes and plant cell-wall-degradation-related genes in C. shiraiana were expressed in different developmental and infection stages, and may be potential targets for prevention and control of this pathogen. These results provide new insights into C. shiraiana pathogenic mechanisms, especially host range and necrotrophy features, and lay the foundation for further study of the underlying molecular mechanisms.
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