Repairing DNA damage is one of the most important functions of the ‘housekeeping’ proteins, as DNA molecules are constantly subject to different kinds of damage. An important mechanism of DNA repair is the mismatch repair system (MMR). In eukaryotes, it is more complex than it is in bacteria or Archaea due to an inflated number of paralogues produced as a result of an extensive process of gene duplication and further specialization upon the evolution of the first eukaryotes, including an important part of the meiotic machinery. Recently, the discovery and sequencing of Asgard Archaea allowed us to revisit the MMR system evolution with the addition of new data from a group that is closely related to the eukaryotic ancestor. This new analysis provided evidence for a complex evolutionary history of eukaryotic MMR: an archaeal origin for the nuclear MMR system in eukaryotes, with subsequent acquisitions of other MMR systems from organelles.