Treated wastewater discharged into the environment or reused in different activities can be a major vehicle for the transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic-resistance genes. In this study, environmental and wastewater samples, collected at different stages of treatment, were studied to identify the possibility of a positive selection of antibiotic-resistant organisms in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Enterococci were isolated, characterized into the main human species, and subjected to the Kirby–Bauer test using seven antibiotics (five classes): ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, linezolid, tetracycline, and vancomycin. Furthermore, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), a major cause of nosocomial infection, was identified, and the genes vanA and vanB detected directly in the samples and in all confirmed VRE. Data showed that WWTPs were able to reduce the levels of antibiotic resistance, although 72% of the disinfected wastewaters still presented antibiotic-resistant enterococci. VRE were detected in 6% of the samples, including in reclaimed waters. UV disinfection was not effective at removing VRE and multiple antibiotic-resistant (MAR) enterococci, most commonly Enterococcus faecalis. The use of reclaimed water containing VRE and MAR enterococci in crop production, irrigation of urban gardens, and street cleaning increases immensely the potential risk to human health.