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Extreme nonuniqueness of end-sum
Journal of Topology and Analysis  (IF0.457),  Pub Date : 2020-12-11, DOI: 10.1142/s179352532150014x
Jack S. Calcut, Craig R. Guilbault, Patrick V. Haggerty

We give explicit examples of pairs of one-ended, open 4-manifolds whose end-sums yield uncountably many manifolds with distinct proper homotopy types. This answers strongly in the affirmative a conjecture of Siebenmann regarding nonuniqueness of end-sums. In addition to the construction of these examples, we provide a detailed discussion of the tools used to distinguish them; most importantly, the end-cohomology algebra. Key to our Main Theorem is an understanding of this algebra for an end-sum in terms of the algebras of summands together with ray-fundamental classes determined by the rays used to perform the end-sum. Differing ray-fundamental classes allow us to distinguish the various examples, but only through the subtle theory of infinitely generated abelian groups. An appendix is included which contains the necessary background from that area.