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Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults and Therapeutic Strategies
Pharmacological Reviews  (IF25.468),  Pub Date : 2021-01-01, DOI: 10.1124/pharmrev.120.000031
Thomas J. Montine, Syed A. Bukhari, Lon R. White, VIVIAN HOOK

Cognitive impairment and its severe form dementia are increasingly prevalent in older adults and loom as a public health disaster unless effective interventions are developed. Cognitive impairment is a convergent trait caused by damage from an idiosyncratic mix of four prevalent diseases (Alzheimer disease; vascular brain injury; Lewy body diseases, such as Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies; and limbic-predominant age-related transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 encephalopathy) that is counterbalanced by individually varying resilience, which is comprised of reserve and compensation. Brain regional damage from each of these four prevalent diseases is generated by the net effect of injury and (mal)adaptive response and is accompanied by characteristic lesions. Existing therapeutics enhance resilience, whereas most agents under development target mechanisms of damage with only suppression of vascular brain injury yet to show therapeutic promise. We hope to anticipate future tailored interventions that target mechanisms of damage and thereby avert the oncoming surge of cognitive impairment and dementia in older adults.