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The landscape of extrapulmonary manifestations of human parainfluenza viruses: A systematic narrative review
Microbiology and Immunology  (IF1.955),  Pub Date : 2020-12-03, DOI: 10.1111/1348-0421.12865
Mohammad Farahmand, Somayeh Shatizadeh Malekshahi, Mohammad Reza Jabbari, Mohammad Shayestehpour

Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection is associated with every kind of respiratory tract illnesses, including the common cold, laryngotracheobronchitis (i.e. croup), tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, in both children and adults. Although HPIVs are common respiratory pathogens, there are increasing reports about extrapulmonary manifestations of HPIVs infection. Each of the HPIVs could produce infection of other organs (central nervous system, heart, myocardium, etc.) in all age groups who are either immunocompetent or immunocompromised. This review aimed at summarizing the available data on clinical manifestations of HPIV infection outside the respiratory tract from 1961 to 2020. The findings support the possibility of extrapulmonary infections that were thought to be due to rare host genetic or immunologic defects in infected patients. These findings highlight the fact that extrapulmonary dissemination of HPIV can occur, but the association is not clearly demonstrated. Our data support the hypothesis that HPIV infection is one of the possible causes of these alterations and may even be the direct cause in some cases.