Example：10.1021/acsami.1c06204 or Chem. Rev., 2007, 107, 2411-2502
Validity and reliability of the Arabic dyscalculia test in diagnosing Egyptian dyscalculic school-age children The Egyptian Journal of Otolaryngology (IF), Pub Date : 2020-09-28, DOI: 10.1186/s43163-020-00020-6 R. M. Abdou, N. H. Hamouda, A. M. Fawzy
Mathematical skills have an important role in progress of the educational level of nations. Unfortunately, there are still some pupils in school with normal intellectual function, but they have different degrees of mathematical disabilities that really can fall apart their whole life. Dyscalculia is called number blindness. It is the name given to the condition that affects our ability to acquire arithmetical skills. In the Arabic language, there is a deficiency in tools for diagnosis of dyscalculia, so we conducted this study to formulate a test suitable for diagnosis of dyscalculia in Egyptian children via translation and modification of an American test (TOMA 3 test). The modified test was highly significant in discriminating dyscalculic from non-dyscalculic Egyptian pupils regarding all items of the test. The Arabic version of TOMA-3 is valid and reliable for diagnosis of dyscalculia in Egyptian school-age children.