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Phospholipase C families: Common themes and versatility in physiology and pathology.
Progress in Lipid Research  (IF16.195),  Pub Date : 2020-09-20, DOI: 10.1016/j.plipres.2020.101065
Matilda Katan,Shamshad Cockcroft

Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase Cs (PLCs) are expressed in all mammalian cells and play critical roles in signal transduction. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of these enzymes in physiology and pathology, a detailed structural, biochemical, cell biological and genetic information is required. In this review, we cover all these aspects to summarize current knowledge of the entire superfamily. The families of PLCs have expanded from 13 enzymes to 16 with the identification of the atypical PLCs in the human genome. Recent structural insights highlight the common themes that cover not only the substrate catalysis but also the mechanisms of activation. This involves the release of autoinhibitory interactions that, in the absence of stimulation, maintain classical PLC enzymes in their inactive forms. Studies of individual PLCs provide a rich repertoire of PLC function in different physiologies. Furthermore, the genetic studies discovered numerous mutated and rare variants of PLC enzymes and their link to human disease development, greatly expanding our understanding of their roles in diverse pathologies. Notably, substantial evidence now supports involvement of different PLC isoforms in the development of specific cancer types, immune disorders and neurodegeneration. These advances will stimulate the generation of new drugs that target PLC enzymes, and will therefore open new possibilities for treatment of a number of diseases where current therapies remain ineffective.