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Human Organoids for the Study of Retinal Development and Disease.
Annual Review of Vision Science  (IF6.422),  Pub Date : 2020-09-16, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-vision-121219-081855
Claire M Bell,Donald J Zack,Cynthia A Berlinicke

Recent advances in stem cell engineering have led to an explosion in the use of organoids as model systems for studies in multiple biological disciplines. Together with breakthroughs in genome engineering and the various omics, organoid technology is making possible studies of human biology that were not previously feasible. For vision science, retinal organoids derived from human stem cells allow differentiating and mature human retinal cells to be studied in unprecedented detail. In this review, we examine the technologies employed to generate retinal organoids and how organoids are revolutionizing the fields of developmental and cellular biology as they pertain to the retina. Furthermore, we explore retinal organoids from a clinical standpoint, offering a new platform with which to study retinal diseases and degeneration, test prospective drugs and therapeutic strategies, and promote personalized medicine. Finally, we discuss the range of possibilities that organoids may bring to future retinal research and consider their ethical implications.