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Applying the COM-B behaviour model to overcome barriers to heart failure self-care: A practical application of a conceptual framework for the development of complex interventions (ACHIEVE study)
European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing  (IF3.908),  Pub Date : 2020-09-14, DOI: 10.1177/1474515120957292
Amanda Whittal, Stefan Störk, Barbara Riegel, Oliver Rudolf Herber

BACKGROUND Effective interventions to enhance adherence to self-care recommendations in patients with heart failure have immense potential to improve health and wellbeing. However, there is substantial inconsistency in the effectiveness of existing self-management interventions, partly because they lack theoretical models underpinning intervention development. AIM To outline how the capability, opportunity and motivation behaviour model has been applied to guide the development of a theory-based intervention aiming to improve adherence to heart failure self-care recommendations. METHODS The application of the capability, opportunity and motivation behaviour model involved three steps: (a) identification of barriers and facilitators to heart failure self-care from two comprehensive meta-studies; (b) identification of appropriate behaviour change techniques to improve heart failure self-care; and (c) involvement of experts to reduce and refine potential behaviour change techniques further. RESULTS A total of 119 barriers and facilitators were identified. Fifty-six behaviour change techniques remained after applying three steps of the behaviour model for designing interventions. Expert involvement (n=39, of which 31 were patients (67% men; 45% New York Heart Association II)) further reduced and refined potential behaviour change techniques. Experts disliked some behaviour change techniques such as 'anticipated regret' and 'salience of consequences'. This process resulted in a final comprehensive list consisting of 28 barriers and 49 appropriate behaviour change techniques potentially enhancing self-care that was put forward for further use. CONCLUSION The application of the capability, opportunity and motivation behaviour model facilitated identifying important factors influencing adherence to heart failure self-care recommendations. The model served as a comprehensive guide for the selection and design of interventions for improving heart failure self-care adherence. The capability, opportunity and motivation behaviour model enabled the connection of heart failure self-care barriers to particular behaviour change techniques to be used in practice.