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Accessory mitral valve tissue: anatomical and clinical perspectives.
Cardiovascular Pathology  (IF2.185),  Pub Date : 2020-08-31, DOI: 10.1016/j.carpath.2020.107277
Ertan Yetkin,Bilal Cuglan,Hasan Turhan,Kenan Yalta

Mitral valve is a complex cardiac structure composed of several components to work in synchrony to allow blood flow into left ventricle during diastole and not to allow blood flow into left atrium during systole. Accessory mitral valve tissue (AMVT) was defined as existence of any additional part and parcel of valvular structure which has an attachment to normal mitral valve apparatus in left-sided cardiac chambers. AMVT may present itself in different clinical circumstances ranging from a silent clinical course to thromboembolic events, heart failure, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and severe arrhythmia. This article reviews the clinical perspectives of AMVT in terms of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment, providing a new anatomical classification regarding the location of AMVT. Briefly type I refers to AMVT having attachments on the supra leaflets level, type II refers to attachments on the mitral leaflets, and type III refers to attachment below the mitral leaflets. Increased awareness and widespread use of echocardiographic techniques would increase recognition of AMVT in patients with heart murmurs but otherwise healthy and in those with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction or tissue which causes subaortic stenosis and with unexplained cerebrovascular events.