Mating and oviposition behavior can change the gene expression levels in insect antennae, especially for pheromone-binding protein (PBP) genes. In this study, we observed the development of the ovaries in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée), from its early emergence to full maturity. Sex pheromones in the sex gland reached their highest quantity and influenced the expression of the PBP2 gene in male antennae. Furthermore, the expression of PBP genes was measured after mating and oviposition. The result showed that mating resulted in an increased expression of the PBP2 gene in male antennae, while the expression of the PBP1 gene increased in female antennae, indicating that PBP genes might play different functions in different sexes. Compared with females that had not mated, the PBP1 and PBP5 genes were up-regulated in female antennae after mating or oviposition. Altogether, the PBP genes were regulated by sex pheromone release, mating or oviposition, suggesting that these genes may play some critical roles in behaviors associated with reproduction.