The entorhinal cortex (EC) is a critical element of the hippocampal formation located within the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in primates. The EC has historically received attention for being the primary mediator of cortical information going into and coming from the hippocampus proper. In this review, we highlight the significance of the EC as a major player in memory processing, along with other associated structures in the primate MTL. The complex, convergent topographies of cortical and subcortical input to the EC, combined with short-range intrinsic connectivity and the selective targeting of EC efferents to the hippocampus, provide evidence for subregional specialization and integration of information beyond what would be expected if this structure were a simple conduit of information for the hippocampus. Lesion studies of the EC provide evidence implicating this region as critical for memory and the flexible use of complex relational associations between experienced events. The physiology of this structure's constituent principal cells mirrors the complexity of its anatomy. EC neurons respond preferentially to aspects of memory-dependent paradigms including object, place, and time. EC neurons also show striking spatial representations as primates explore visual space, similar to those identified in rodents navigating physical space. In this review, we highlight the great strides that have been made toward furthering our understanding of the primate EC, and we identify paths forward for future experiments to provide additional insight into the role of this structure in learning and memory.