Theta burst stimulation is increasingly growing in popularity as a non-invasive method of moderating corticospinal networks. Theta burst stimulation uses gamma frequency trains applied at the rhythm of theta, thus, mimicking theta–gamma coupling involved in cognitive processes. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has been found to play a crucial role in numerous cognitive processes. Here, we include 25 studies for review to determine the cognitive effects of continuous theta burst stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; 20 of these studies are healthy participant and five are patient (pharmacotherapy-resistant depression) studies. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the included studies, only a descriptive approach is used and meta-analytics ruled out. The cognitive effect is measured on various cognitive domains: attention, working memory, planning, language, decision making, executive function, and inhibitory and cognitive control. We conclude that continuous theta burst stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex mainly inhibits cognitive performance. However, in some instances, it can lead to improved performance by inhibiting the effect of distractors or other competing irrelevant cognitive processes. To be precise, continuous theta burst stimulation over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex impaired attention, inhibitory control, planning, and goal-directed behavior in decision making but also improved decision making by reducing impulsivity. Conversely, continuous theta burst stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex impaired executive function, working, auditory feedback regulation, and cognitive control but accelerated the planning, decision-making process. These findings constitute a useful contribution to the literature on the cognitive effects of continuous theta burst stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.