By observing the dynamic changes of extracellular histones H1, H2A, H4, and NF-κB expression in brain tissues after brain injury in rats, we explore the association among the expression of extracellular histones H1, H2A, H4, and NF-κB following traumatic brain injury (TBI), as well as the effect of different atmospheres absolute hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) intervention on the expression and possible mechanisms. A total of 120 SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Sham-operated (SH), TBI (traumatic brain injury) group, traumatic brain injury and hyperbaric oxygen treatment 1.6ATA (TBI + HBO1) group, and traumatic brain injury and hyperbaric oxygen treatment2.2ATA (TBI + HBO2) group, with 30 rats in each group. The rats in each group were then randomly divided into five smaller time-specific sub-groups: 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after surgery. TBI models were established, and the brain tissue around the lesion was taken at different time points. On the one hand,we detected the level of local histones H1, H2A, H4, and NF-κB by RT-PCR and Western Blot. On the other hand, we used immunohistochemical methods to detect the expression of NF-κB, while using the TUNEL method to observe the cell apoptosis in experimental groups after brain injury. Extracellular histones H1, H2A, H4, and NF-κB proteins were highly expressed at 3 h, then with a slight fluctuation, reached to peak at 48 h after the injury. HBO can affect the expression of histones H1, H2A, H4, and NF-κB. The decline of each indicator in the 1.6ATA group was significantly lower than that in the 2.2ATA group, especially within 6 h (P < 0. 05). In addition, NF-κB expression was consistent with the pathological changes of apoptosis in experimental groups. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy with relatively low pressure (1.6ATA) at the early stage can significantly inhibit the expression of extracellular histones H1, H2A, H4, and NF-κB around the lesion, reduce the apoptosis of nerve cells, and thus play an important role in alleviating secondary brain injury.