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Diagnostic Accuracy of Pan-Degenerate Amplification and Adaptation Assay for HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutation Analysis in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  (IF5.948),  Pub Date : 2020-08-24, DOI: 10.1128/jcm.01045-20
Vinie Kouamou,Justen Manasa,David Katzenstein,Alan M McGregor,Chiratidzo E Ndhlovu,Tariro Makadzange

HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) is a barrier to sustained virologic suppression in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Point mutation assays targeting priority drug resistance mutations (DRMs) are being evaluated to improve access to HIVDR testing. In a cross-sectional study (June 2018 to September 2019), we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a simple and rapid HIVDR assay (the pan-degenerate amplification and adaptation [PANDAA] assay targeting the mutations K65R, K103NS, M184VI, Y181C, and G190A) compared to Sanger sequencing and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Plasma samples from adolescents and young adults (aged 10 to 24 years) failing antiretroviral therapy (viral load, >1,000 copies/ml on 2 consecutive occasions 1 month apart) were analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity of the PANDAA assay were determined by a proprietary application designed by Aldatu Biosciences. Agreement between genotyping methods was evaluated using Cohen’s kappa coefficient. One hundred fifty samples previously characterized by Sanger sequencing were evaluated using PANDAA. For all DRMs detected, PANDAA showed a sensitivity and specificity of 98% and 94%, respectively. For nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor DRMs, sensitivity and specificity were 98% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92% to 100%) and 100% (94% to 100%), respectively. For non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor DRMs, sensitivity and specificity were 100% (97% to 100%) and 76% (61% to 87%), respectively. PANDAA showed strong agreement with Sanger sequencing for K65R, K103NS, M184VI, and G190A (kappa > 0.85) and substantial agreement for Y181C (kappa = 0.720). Of the 21 false-positive samples genotyped by PANDAA, only 6 (29%) were identified as low-abundance variants by NGS. With the high sensitivity and specificity to detect major DRMs, PANDAA could represent a simple and rapid alternative HIVDR assay in LMICs.