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Effects of High and Low Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acids on the Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid Release upon Activation of the Toll-Like Receptors in Astrocytes
Biochemistry (Moscow), Supplement Series A: Membrane and Cell Biology  (IF),  Pub Date : 2020-04-01, DOI: 10.1134/s1990747819060035
N. V. Azbukina, A. A. Astakhova, S. V. Goriainov, V. V. Chistyakov, M. G. Sergeeva

Abstract Hyaluronic acid (HA) is one of the key polymer components of the extracellular matrix; it can exert different effects on intracellular signaling depending on its molecular weight. We compared the effects of low (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) HA polymers on the ability of primary astrocytes, glial brain cells, to release into the extracellular medium omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA), as well as omega-6 unsaturated arachidonic acid (AA), which were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. It was shown that upon the addition of LMW HA for 4.5 h the concentration of AA reduced. HMW HA did not affect the release of AA but increased the release of DHA and EPA. Adaptation of the cells for 48 h to the action of the HA polymers of different molecular weights led to a decrease in the release of omega-3 and omega-6 unsaturated fatty acids by astrocytes. A comparison of the ability of HA to modulate astrocyte responses to stimulation by Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists showed that HA affected TLR4-stimulated induction of IL-1β proinflammatory marker gene after 0.5-h exposure to LMW HA and HMW HA followed by further stimulation with TLR4 agonist for 4 h. Thus, the release of polyunsaturated fatty acids in astrocytes was sensitive to HA and depended on the molecular weight of the polymers; long (48 h) exposure to HA led to adaptation of astrocytes; HA differently affected the release of omega-6 (AA) and omega-3 (DHA) unsaturated fatty acids, indicating a difference in the mechanisms of their release. As DHA is believed to perform anti-inflammatory and protective functions in the brain, these findings open up prospects for appliance of HA polymers as modulators of inflammatory responses of astrocytes.