Collective cell behaviour during embryogenesis and tissue repair requires the coordination of intercellular junctions, cytoskeleton-dependent shape changes controlled by Rho GTPases, and integrin-dependent cell-matrix adhesion. Many different integrins are simultaneously expressed during wound healing, embryonic development, and sprouting angiogenesis, suggesting that there is extensive integrin/integrin cross-talk to regulate cell behaviour. Here, we show that fibronectin-binding β1 and β3 integrins do not act synergistically, but rather antagonize each other during collective cell processes in neuro-epithelial cells, placental trophoblasts, and endothelial cells. Reciprocal β1/β3 antagonism controls RhoA activity in a kindlin-2-dependent manner, balancing cell spreading, contractility, and intercellular adhesion. In this way, reciprocal β1/β3 antagonism controls cell cohesion and cellular plasticity to switch between extreme and opposing states, including epithelial versus mesenchymal-like phenotypes and collective versus individual cell migration. We propose that integrin/integrin antagonism is a universal mechanism to effectuate social cellular interactions, important for tissue morphogenesis, endothelial barrier function, trophoblast invasion, and sprouting angiogenesis.