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Retinal Ganglion Cell Axon Wiring Establishing the Binocular Circuit.
Annual Review of Vision Science  (IF6.422),  Pub Date : 2020-09-16, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034306
Carol Mason,Nefeli Slavi

Binocular vision depends on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon projection either to the same side or to the opposite side of the brain. In this article, we review the molecular mechanisms for decussation of RGC axons, with a focus on axon guidance signaling at the optic chiasm and ipsi- and contralateral axon organization in the optic tract prior to and during targeting. The spatial and temporal features of RGC neurogenesis that give rise to ipsilateral and contralateral identity are described. The albino visual system is highlighted as an apt comparative model for understanding RGC decussation, as albinos have a reduced ipsilateral projection and altered RGC neurogenesis associated with perturbed melanogenesis in the retinal pigment epithelium. Understanding the steps for RGC specification into ipsi- and contralateral subtypes will facilitate differentiation of stem cells into RGCs with proper navigational abilities for effective axon regeneration and correct targeting of higher-order visual centers.