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Stress Allostasis in Substance Use Disorders: Promise, Progress, and Emerging Priorities in Clinical Research.
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology  (IF18.561),  Pub Date : 2020-02-10, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-102419-125016
Gaylen E Fronk,Sarah J Sant'Ana,Jesse T Kaye,John J Curtin

Clinicians and researchers alike have long believed that stressors play a pivotal etiologic role in risk, maintenance, and/or relapse of alcohol and other substance use disorders (SUDs). Numerous seminal and contemporary theories on SUD etiology posit that stressors may motivate drug use and that individuals who use drugs chronically may display altered responses to stressors. We use foundational basic stress biology research as a lens through which to evaluate critically the available evidence to support these key stress-SUD theses in humans. Additionally, we examine the field's success to date in targeting stressors and stress allostasis in treatments for SUDs. We conclude with our recommendations for how best to advance our understanding of the relationship between stressors and drug use, and we discuss clinical implications for treatment development.