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Biotransformation of phytoestrogens from soy in enzymatically characterized liver microsomes and primary hepatocytes of Atlantic salmon.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety  (IF7.129),  Pub Date : 2020-04-12, DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110611
Amritha Johny,Lada Ivanova,Tone-Kari Knutsdatter Østbye,Christiane Kruse Fæste

Efficient aquaculture is depending on sustainable protein sources. The shortage in marine raw materials has initiated a shift to "green aquafeeds" based on staple ingredients such as soy and wheat. Plant-based diets entail new challenges regarding fish health, product quality and consumer risks due to the possible presence of chemical contaminants, natural toxins and bioactive compounds like phytoestrogens. Daidzein (DAI), genistein (GEN) and glycitein (GLY) are major soy isoflavones with considerable estrogenic activities, potentially interfering with the piscine endocrine system and affecting consumers after carry-over. In this context, information on isoflavone biotransformation in fish is crucial for risk evaluation. We have therefore isolated hepatic fractions of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), the most important species in Norwegian aquaculture, and used them to study isoflavone elimination and metabolite formation. The salmon liver microsomes and primary hepatocytes were characterized with respect to phase I cytochrome P450 (CYP) and phase II uridine-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzyme activities using specific probe substrates, which allowed comparison to results in other species. DAI, GEN and GLY were effectively cleared by UGT. Based on the measurement of exact masses, fragmentation patterns, and retention times in liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry, we preliminarily identified the 7-O-glucuronides as the main metabolites in salmon, possibly produced by UGT1A1 and UGT1A9-like activities. In contrast, the production of oxidative metabolites by CYP was insignificant. Under optimized assay conditions, only small amounts of mono-hydroxylated DAI were detectable. These findings suggested that bioaccumulation of phytoestrogens in farmed salmon and consumer risks from soy-containing aquafeeds are unlikely.