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Radiation hydrodynamics in simulations of the solar atmosphere
Living Reviews in Solar Physics  (IF17.417),  Pub Date : 2020-03-23, DOI: 10.1007/s41116-020-0024-x
Jorrit Leenaarts

Nearly all energy generated by fusion in the solar core is ultimately radiated away into space in the solar atmosphere, while the remaining energy is carried away in the form of neutrinos. The exchange of energy between the solar gas and the radiation field is thus an essential ingredient of atmospheric modeling. The equations describing these interactions are known, but their solution is so computationally expensive that they can only be solved in approximate form in multi-dimensional radiation-MHD modeling. In this review, I discuss the most commonly used approximations for energy exchange between gas and radiation in the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona.